To our knowledge the only other attempt to apply the GLI method to thin-bed exploration is by Gang and Goulty We consider that, as far as possible, our processing sequence preserved true relative amplitude and a uniform bandwidth down the section. Velocity and density measurements in both boreholes were used to construct acoustic impedance logs with reference to the corresponding lithological log. This model Figure 8 features three coal seams. The upper coal seam is faulted at the left side of the section blocks 3 and Figure 9b shows the results of the migration algorithm on the synthetic data.
Geophysical Mine Void Detection Using In-Seam Seismics - OnePetro
Fromthetwosyntheticsec- tions in Figure 9, three results become clear. Comparing the synthetic sections Figure 9 to the true sec- tion Figure 7a we conclude that the main features of the struc- tural model have been validated, at least in a qualitative sense. Figures 10a—c are the interpretations for lines 1—3, respectively. The coal seams are not uniform and are dis- rupted by various pinch-outs and faults.
Canadian Geotechnical Journal
Various normal faults have been interpreted down to the metamorphic basement. These structures account for about 3 to 6 m about 2 to 4 ms two-way time of vertical change in FIG. The section was created assuming sources at the surface 0. High-Resolution Coal Seismic Investigation 57 the coal elevation. The basement is also clearly depicted apart from a small section between CDPs and in line 2.
This fault also causes the discontinuity between the western part of line 2 and the eastern part of line 3. Considerable effort was put toward selecting the most adequate kriging methodology. Interpreted sections of a line 1, b line 2, and c line 3. Kriging is a weighted moving average interpolation extrap- olation method which minimizes the estimated variance of a predicted point node with the weighted average of its neigh- bors e.
The weighting factors and the variance are calculated using a variogram model which describes the dif- ferences versus distance for pairs of samples in the input data set. The latter consists of a series of geological pixels obtained from borehole data or from the seismic model describing the geological layers in x-y-z Cartesian space.
Instead of following the traditional approach, which considers the differ- ences between samples versus their distance from one another, we followed a new approach—extending this concept by also considering the direction vector distance. This methodology is capable of better representing coal seam trends in the data.
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When surface seismic surveys are used in con- junction with drilling, subsurface geological information can help mine engineers develop optimal mine plans. All the main geological interfaces were mapped accu- rately, and several low-throw faults were interpreted from the seismic sections. Asbjorn N. Christensen, Shanti Rajagopalan, and two anonymous reviewers are also aknowledged for their con- structive comments.
The Greek Public Power Corporation supported the coal geophysics program and granted permis- son to release this paper for publication.
Reprint 6, — Caputo, R. Clark, L. Gang, T. Gochioco, L.
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The distance in the grid is in meters. Greaves, R.
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Seismic Coal Exploration, Volume 16
Lambourne, A. Lawton, D. Lyatsky, H. Miller, R.
Palmer, D. Pullan, S. Ruskey, F. Mines Info. Cutting into these areas poses a great risk to miners'' safety and can result in mine operation downtime. Costly drilling is often employed to locate these abandoned areas. Guided waves are very sensitive to seam perturbations and can be used to locate voids and faults within a coal seam. We recently acquired two in-seam seismic lines and have identified guided wave reflections that correlate with the location of the mine.
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